Each year more than a million operations are complicated by heart attacks and death from cardiac causes. As most surgery is elective these days then it pays to be cautious. There are a number of risk factors that should be taken into account:
- Unstable angina,
- previous heart attack,
- heart failure
- significant heart blockage
- heart disease with arrhythmia
- severe valvular heart disease
- multiple intermediate risk markers such as heart attack and diabetes.
Other risk factors include:
- high blood pressure
- diabetes and kidney disorders
- poor health and lack of exercise
- longer stay in hospital.
(Image courtesy: Surgeons repairing a ruptured Achilles tendon on a man, Wikipedia)